JPRS 75241 3 March 1980

Sub-Saharan Africa Report

No. 2219


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JPRS 75241

3 March 1980


No. 2219



Computerized Network for Cormodity Trading Planned (Bill Cain; SUNDAY TIMES-BUSIXFSS TIMES, 3 Feb 80)....... 1

Rhodesia-Mozambique Traffic Seen as ‘Economic Sense’ (Editorial; THE HERALD, 12 Feb rrr TT Tir TT Tt tr 2

Efforts To Standardize Hausa in Niger, Nigeria Noted (Various sources, various dateS)..ccccccccccccesscseseees 3

Expert Discusses Problems Involved, Jean Guy Malka Interview

One Language, One Orthography

Single Hausa Orthography Achieved

Tanzanian Tribesmen Steal Cattle (DAILY NATION, 5 Feb BO) cccccccccccccccccccccccescesecess 7

Lake Turkana Expedition Held Up at Ethiopian Border (SUNDAY NATION, 3 Feb BO) ccccccccccccccccccccccccsccccess 8

Minister Urges Kenyan-Seychelles Air Transport, Trade (DAILY NATION, 5 Feb BO) on cccccccccccccccccccceecccececees g

Role of African Intellectuals Discussed (AFRICA, Jan ) PRPOTTTTTTTTTTTTTITTTTTliriririiiiii ii 10

Briefs Mali Denies Sahara Involvement 28

Portuguese Government Deplores Diamang Nationalization (WEST AFRICA, ll Feb GS) co ccccceseccccecvcccececcccececs 29

-a- {III - NE & A = 120]

CONTENTS (Continued) Page

Italian-Assisted School for Oil Sector Training

(NOTICIAS, 20 Dec DiPMichbbndaad pnbedadbnoodbhacesecatas 30 Briefs Cuban Construction Cooperation 31 Cultural Agreement With Portugal 31 Friendship With Yugoslavia 31. MPLA Central Committee Meeting 31 Upcoming UNITA Offensive Allegation 32 CAPE VERDE Briefs Cooperaticn With USSR Discussed 33 CONGO Final Communique of National Youth Council (ETUMBA, 16 Jan PPP rrery TT oT TTITT TTT TTT rT) 34 GHANA

Fundamental Difficulties Affecting Economy Analyzed (Amon-Nikoi Interview; WEST AFRICA, 11 Feb 80)........ 38

Nation's Ideological Direction Offers Alternative Choices (Editorial; GHANAIAN TIMES, 31 Jan Bap coccdeccescocecce 42

Participatory Socialism Advocated as Fitting Ideology (Dan Offei; DAILY GRAPHIC, 29 Jan TO pccccdcccececceecs 44

Principles in Anti-Israel Stance Invoked (Editorial; GHANAIAN TIMES, 30 Jan 80)... .cccceeeceeese 46

USSR-Transported Frozen Fish Mystery Unresolved (WEST AFRICA, ll Feb BO) cocccccccccceeeccceeeeeceseese 47

Briefs Private Participaticn Urged 48 TUC Return From PRC, Hungary 48 Austria, FRG Assietance 48 Foreign Aid Need Stressed 49 Owusu Resignation Denied 49

CONTENTS (Continued) Page


Briefs Me ceorological Information 50


Chamber Told To Work With Government To Wipe Out Corruption (DAILY NATION, 2 Feb ion bnbsoedbssabaloneceecenseone 51

President's Address Chamber Should Cancel Culprits’ Membership, Editorial

Wasini Islands, Mombasa, Other Areas Hit by Water Shortages (DALLY NATION, 2 Feb Bn 60066000060 0806060600000000008 54

IMF Official Hails Industrial Expansion Efforts (DAILY NATION, 2 Feb rrrrTrTrT rrr? Trrrrrrrry. 56

Commercial Bank Chairman Discusses Economic Trends (Philip Ndegwa Interview; SUNDAY NATION, » 3 Feb 606 000006 0000 600000600 666000600000000000000068 57

Civil Servants Union, COTU Present Minimum Wage Demands (DAILY NATION, 2 Feb PFFPPrrrTrrTrrrrrrrrsrrfrfririririrrir sy 64

Police Disperse Striking Sisal Plantation Workers (SUNDAY NATION, 3 Feb FPP TTTrTrrTrrirrrrrrrrrisrrirr yr 65

Foreign Exchange Can Be Earned From Cotton Price Increase (Kul Bhushan; SUNDAY NATION, 3 Feb 80). eeeeeoeeeeeeeee 66

Minister, City Councillors Should Back Mayor's Probe (Joe Kadhi; SUNDAY NATION, 3 Feb Be cccccccctcooccccce 67

Thugs Pose as GSU Members, Terrorize Citizens (DAILY NATION, 5 Feb BD) 0000600 60s 00000000000000000080 70

Land Prices in Desirable Areas of Nairobi Increasing (DAILY NATION, 5 Feb BD) ccccccccccccccesceccccoeceeccs 71


Drought Expected To Continue 72

CONTENTS (Continued) Page


Briefs USSR Tanks 73

NAMIBIA Du Plessis: I Am Not Even Thirking of Standing Down

(A. H. du Plessis Interview; THE WINDHOEK ADVERTISER, 15 Feb re ee ee ee ae 74

End To Irresponsible White Politics Noted (Editorial, Leon Kok; THE WINDHOEK ADVERTISER, 15 Feb Ti dh 0606600 60606080060 6 060066000060006 6decceed 77

Caprivi Chief: Terrorists Afraid To Return for Amnesty (Anne Marie du Preez; THE WINDHOEK ADVERTISER, 15 Feb WP 6 000066 060000666600 0000600650 0b6 SOC 0008 806s 80

V'sit to Oamites Copper, Silver Mine Described (Anita de Kock; THE WINDHOEK ADVERTISER, 15 Feb / PROUT ETTETTTTTIPTTTTTITrrTiirriirirrerririirre ere 81


Terrorists Killed 82 Tlhabanello Returns 82


Rh: desian Economy--Investing Into the 1980s (TUE FINANCIAL GAZETTE, 8 Feb 80)..cccccecscccsesesees 83

I aprovement of Economy Reported (THE FINANCIAL GAZETTE, 8 Feb BD) ccoccccesececesecocecs 87

Triefs Gold Rush 90


Briefs Diplomatic Relations With Kuwait 91

CONTENTS (Continued) Page


"MUSLIM NEWS' Comments on Afghanistan Invasion (Editorial; MUSLIM NEWS, 25 Jan rrr TT TT Te 92

Reports on Parliament Proceedings (THE CITIZEN, 7 Feb 9060000000 00600 600006 00006060 93

Botha on Marxist Threat, by Jaap Theron

National Intelligence Organizations, by Jaap Theron

Public Service Reorganization

Immorality, Mixed Marriages Acts

Colored Leaders 'Unrepresentative'

Police Minister on Security

Soweto Electrification

Answers to Questions

Prisons Department Gives Total of Political Prisoners (Willie Bokala; POST, 29 Jan Dep ecsececceceeccoccoee 102

Inkatha Secretary Thula Explains Policy (Phil Mtimkulu; POST, 29 Jan BO ccccccvcccccecececes 103

Bill Introduced on Land Transfer to Black States (THE CITIZEN, 12 Feb BO) cccccccce cocceccencecececocs 104

Police, Guards Given Antiterrorist Training (Various sources, 77 Jan, 3 Feb 80)..ceceesceseeeses 105

Special Training for Police Protection of VIP's, by Mark Dobson

" Koornhof Qualifies Statement on 72-Hour Curfew (Jaap Theron; THE CITIZEN, 9 Feb 80). ..cceesececceess 107

Buthelezi Criticizes Natal Indian Congress (Hoosen Kolia; SUNDAY TIMES, 27 Jan 80)...ceeeccsees 168

Muslim Students Association Condemns Group Areas Act (MUSLIM NEWS, 25 Jan BD cccccccceceesceceoccoooesees 109

Afrikaner Cultural Organization To Publish Book (RAND DAILY MAIL, 5 Feb DPPPTTTTTITITITITITTTrTrrrsre 110

CONTENTS (Continued)


Continued Upswing in Economy Expected (THE CITIZEN, 7 Feb 0nshane606o0eeheeseoeeeseee se

Standard Bank Predicts No Major Tax Reductions (Harold Fridjhon; RAND DAILY MAIL, 7 Feb 80).......+-

Shipyard To Be Built in Algoa Bay ( RAND DAILY MAIL, 2 Feb iD 66} 66666600960000 60066 0066

ISCOR Studying Likely Coking Coal Sites (SUNDAY TIMES-BUSINESS TIMES, 27 Jan 80) eeeeeeeeeeeee

Eight More FOSATU Unions To Apply for Registration (POST, l Feb Te © 0666 wh OS 006bbb 6606 Coes eddeseooceces

Black Mountain Base Metal Mine Going Into Production (SUNDAY TIMES-BUS INESS TIMES , 27 Jan BO) cocccccccoccce

Gold Mine Expansion Plan Announced (David Bamber; THE CITIZEN, 12 Feb 80)... ...eceeseeses

Briefs Trade With Israel S.A.-Taiwan Chamber of Commerce Thozamile Botha Status Venda National Force Recruits ‘Foreign’ Black Wives Ruling Underutilized Black Training Centers First Armed Black Police Dynamite Factory Explosion Sentrachem Carbide Plant Northwest Karoo Drought Gold Holdings January Figures Gasoline Price Increase

U.S. Military Aid to Pakistan Hit (Editorial; TIMES OF ZAMBIA, 3 Feb BWoccccccccocccecoes

Party Gears for Elections (ZAMBIA DAILY MAIL, 7 Feb BO) ccccccccccccececececcesss

Front Will Win Rhodesia Vote, Predicts Milner (TIMES OF ZAMBIA, 2 Feb |) PPPTTTTITITTirrresrrrrrrprrrerre

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121 121 121 121 122 122 122 122 123 123 123 124




CONTENTS (Cont inued) Page

Former PM Ian Smith Criticized (Editorial; TIMES OF ZAMBIA, l Feb BP edecee seeceeeece 128

Party Efforts To Halt Poverty Supported (Editorial; TIMES OF ZAMBIA, 4 Feb 80)...uececeeeeesee 129

Party Committed To Relentless War Against Capitalism (TIMES OF ZAMBIA, 4 Feb Bec edcesesseeceeeeeoooeoceees 131

Power To Control Expa*riates Advocated (TIMES OF ZAMBIA, l Feb ) PPPPTTTTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TT Tee 133

"Immediate Stop’ to Employing Aliens Urged (TIMES OF ZAMBIA, 4 Feb |) PPUTTTTTPTTITTTiTrrrrrirrres 134

Yugoslav Contribution to Bridges Fund Hailed (TIMES OF ZAMBIA, 6 Feb |) FPPPPTPTTTTrrrrerreefprrrrrre 136

UNIDO Project To Set Up Export Processing Zone Reported ( ZAMBILA DAILY MAIL, 4 Feb BO dccccccececceccces coeecece 137

Building Industry Decline Reported ( TIMES OF ZAMBIA, 4 Feb BO) cccccccccccccccescevceeces 139

Railways Official Mazoka Resigns (TIMES OF ZAMBIA, 5 Feb BO) cccccccccccccececeeeeeocees 140

Mbala Wheat Scheme a Success (TIMES OF ZAMBIA, 6 Feb BD ccccccescccecceeeceeceeeees 141

Briefs Foreign Trade Statistics 142 Conference Lines Raise Rates 142



Johannesburg SUNDAY TIMES-BUSINESS TIMES in Engiish 3 Feb 80 p 5

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RHODES IA-MOZAMBIQUE TRAFFIC SEEN AS ‘ECONOMIC SENSE" Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Feb 80 p 6 (Editorial: "Back to Beira"]

[Text } FOR this country to develop its full trading potential with the world it must bave the help of its friends and neighbours. it must have road, and particularly rail, access and the use of ports from where its heavy mincral and agriculiural exports can reach world markets.

The report we publish today from Beira shows that officials there are eager to get their raiiways and heroour workings back into full operation quickly to cope with the Rhodesian traffic that could be on offer.

With so little known about what has been happening in Beira in recent years, the plans mentioned in the report make heartening reading. The aim appears to be to enable bigger ships to use it, and to modernise it with « container terminal.

This country’s eventual re-use of all the rail and port tecilities at both Beira and Maputo can only beip Mozambique by providing more revenue and more jobs. Those at Beira obviously suffered over the years when the border was closed.

It can only make economic sense for President Machel to keep the borders open and the traffic flowing no matter what government comes to power in this country next month. For too long, the results of political differences have bedevilled the lives and fortunes of ordinary people in these parts.

CS: 6620



Expert Discusses Problems Involved

Niamey SAHEL HESDO in French 14 Jan 80 pp 23, 24

(Interview with Jean Guy Malka, researcher at the Institute for Research on Human Sciences (IRHS) in Niamey and teacher at the UV University on the problems of Hausa linguistics, by Ibrichek]

(Text] After the cranscription of the minutes of the "mande" (meeting convened?) at Niamey, it was the turn of the Hausa spelling exp::' to be examined by the linguists and cther specialists it African dialects.

This second meeting, which is a UNESCO initiative and was also held under the sponsorship of the Organization for African Unity (OAU), pursuant to the express wish of the chiefs of state attending the last summit at Monrovia, must be fo.lowed up, particulerly with the standardization of the "kwa" languages (Ewe, Mina, Fon, etc), and standardization of the writing of Peulh, Tamacheck and so forth.

Without wanting to foretell what will be done with the research results, one is nevertheless entitled to draw attention to the revolutionary nature of this work. it is, in fact, the first time that one is able to observe the beginnings (on the linguis- tic level) of a materialization of the charismatic thesis "of African unity." Indeed, there can be no doubt that the goal sought is to opeu up the way *o a plan for better communications between the different nationalities scattered over our continent.

[Question] As was foreseen, after the "mande" it was Hausa's turn. What is the problem this time?

{Answer] Although there are approximately 50 million people speaking Hausa e on our continent, with some 35 million in Nigeria and just over 3 million in Niger, this meeting is basically of interest to both countries. Moreover,

despite the fact that there is a ministerial order in co.uicil (dating from 1966) stili in force in our country, which establishes the alphabet of the national tongues, Hausa among them, no authoritative measure exists regarding the spelling thereof. Such a situation does not prevail in Nigeria where spelling of Hausa has been governed by measures which date back about 50 years.

This duality undoubtedly gives rise to some of the dichotomy. Thus, in connection with the vowels, for instance, one observes the use of longer

vowel sounds in Niger whereas in Nigeria there is a more economic concept

of language, in the sense that it is written with the fewest possible letters, and with little regard for sound.

One can readily distinguish between a person from the East and another from

the West, insofar as speech is concerned, when the two countries are considered together. Now, the characteristic of good orthogiaphy is that it should be simple, practical and economic (space-saving). To arrive at such a goal one

is therefore obliged to drop the long vowels which are associated with speech.

In short, the problem is to ensure that the Hausa word for a given object should be written in exactly the same way, in whatever country or region is involved,

[Question] I may perhaps appear to be the devil's advocate but, precisely in connection with ideomatic localisms, don't you think that your "standard- ization" risks exacerbating specific ethnic feelings which can sometimes be identified with speech?

[Answer] Not at all: Standardization will take place only at the written level. One need not affect speech in any way. Pronunciation will remain intact, as it is; it will only be a question of standardizing the spelling, the written word. From the speech point of view, practically all Western languages have different regional characteristics.

For instance, listen to a man from Marseilles discuss something with a Parisian. Any foreign observer who ignores Moliere's language will ask himself if the two individuals are even talking i: the same language. Yet French is written in the same way not only in Franc but outside the metro- politan territory.

[Question] You said a moment ago that in Nigeria, the spelling of the language was more or less established by law some 50 years ago. That pre- supposes an infrastructure which we do not as yet possess. Needless to say, this question of standardization is one which risks flowing in a single direction, What I mean to say is that it is Niger, above all, which would have to be making concessions.

[Answer] You are posing a problem that must be approached in a pragmacic and realistic manner. It is true that in 50 years Nigeria has had time and found the means to undertake a relatively substantial effort in connection

with achieving literacy in the national languages. With the UPE (Universal Primary Education) system, roughly 80 percent of the population can read and write in Arabic and Hausa,

One must therefore assume that there is some considerable literary output

and a substantial potential of teachers. If Nigeria were to be called on

at this point to change its orthography, practically everyone would become illiterate. In addition, the financial ana teaching impact of such a measure would be catastrophic. Every schoolbook would have to be reformulated, all the teachers recycled, etc. This does not appear to be a very realistic way of doing things. Certainly, a number of small changes can be introduced

here and there (that is done in every language as it develops and modernizes). However, it does not seem rightly inspired to ask Nigeria to consider the complete change-over of its spelling method.

[Question] If the case has already been judged, why a trial? In other words, why a meeting?

[Answer] This meeting will in no way be a monologue. We have our ideas about making the Hausa spelling “simple, practical and economic," that is to say we would like to modernize the spelling of the language.

[Question] And your final comment, please.

[Answer] In Nigeria, there are approximately 240 languages and dialects;

on the Ivory Coast, there are some 60 to 70 of them. In Niger, fortunately, we have only 5 principal languages (Hausa, Djerma, Kanouri, Fulfulde and Tamachek). However, this cultural multiplicity which one observes generally throughout Africa has its economic counterweight: there is a great difficulty in providing communication facilities, and hence difficulties in assuring briskness and mobilization. That should tell you how important and useful standardization of the principal languages can be. At one and the same time, it will favor cultural and economic cooperation as between the African coun- tries.

One Language, One Orthography Niamey LE SAHEL in French 12-13 Jan 80 p 1 (Text] Ome language, a single way of spelling it: that will be the case with Hausa, in a measure with the degree to which Niger and Nigeria are

ready to ratify the agreements formulated by the experts meeting at Niamey since [sentence incomplete as published].

In fact, the experts in linguistics settled on a common orthography based

on standard Hausa. Their work is done and the ball is now in the politicians' corner. Indeed, this may be much truer than would at first appear because only Niger and Nigeria could create an obstacle to the standardization of

the spelling of the Hausa language, the written language, that is.

Single Hausa Oxthography Achieved Niamey LE SAHEL in French 12-13 Jan 80 p 3

[Text] The meeting on the Hausa language, organized by the Center for Linguistic and Historicai Studies by Oral Tradition (CELHTO) will wind up its work today. After 2 long days of discussion, the experts from Niger and Nigeria finally reached agreement on a standard orthography and this was indeed a feat!

The linguists, who have been holding working sessions in connection with

Hausa since last Monday, will now leave, carrying in their briefcases concrete results to be submitted to their respective governments. This was not easily attained, but after two days of debates--instead of the morning session originally allocated to the topic--exclusively on the question of standard- izing the orthography, the participants finally agreed on a written form

that would be common to Niger and Nigeria.

"In principle, there will be no difficulty for other countries where Hausa is spoken to follow suit," declared Mr. Djoulde Laya, director of CELHTO. His con“idence in the statement he made can be explained by the fact that the Hause people living in other countries originally went there from Niger and Nigeria. These two countries alone would be in a position to raise any obstacle to adoption of the agreements formulated by the linguistic experts.

These latter were guided in their work by questions related to teaching and the contribution made by the teachers was decisive in that, ultimately, it was the teachers who cut short the discussion and settled matters.

As was said before, it is now up to the governments to act, particularly those who share the same anxieties.

The agenda of the meeting indicates a closing session today. Still to be examined, among other items, is the preparation of a Hausa dictionary and also the translation of the general African history, for which an outline has already been determined.

7129 cso: 4400



Nairobi DAILY NATION in English 5 Feb 80 p 13

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Nairobi SUNDAY NATION in English 3 Feb 80 p 27



Kenya-Ethiopia awaiting permission from Ethiopian authorities to enter the country. A Press release from Amin's office in Nairobi yesterday said that if the group is allowed to enter Ethiopia and complete its


assignment, then additional

material on the little known River Delta will be available during late February

The that it is still ay Lag ‘difficult crossing of

over 3,000 miles betore returning to Nairobi in late February .



Nairobi DAILY NATION in English 5 Feb 80 p 4

[Text] Commerce Minister John Okwanyo has called for intensified trade co-operation between Kenya and the Seychelles,

He made the call at the opening yesterday «f Kenya Trade Week in the Seychelles. President Albert Rene was prevent at the function.

Mr Okwanyo conveyed greetings from Presdient Moi to President Rene and to the people of the Seychelles.

He described Kenya and the Seychelles as the major gateway to the Indian Ocean, and urged for joint services, particularly in air transport, between the two neighboring nations.

He said Kenya was a major supplier of the Seychelles’ import needs, and added that Nairobi was interested in seeing two-way trade increases.

Kenya and the Seychelles, the Minister said, had similar histerical back- grounds, shared common interests in tourism and were both members of the Commonwealth. He said the two countries could join hands in further pro- moting tourisn.

The Kenyan Trade Week in the Seychelles has been organized by Kenya Ex- ternal Trade Authority (KETA). It has attracted many Kenyan industrialists and traders who are exhibiting their products for the Seychelles market.

Mr Okwanyo offered the Seychelleois places in one of the export courses organized by Keta. He said this was one of the ways the two countries could cooperate in trade.

The Minister said only by close cooperation would the Seychelles and Kenya, which already have strong commercial ties, be able to develop their economies, as well as strengthen social, cultural and political relations.

CSO: 4420



[Round-table discussion organized in Paris by Renee Pelletier, in charge of the Paris bureau of AFRICA review, in cooperation with the Inter- national Center for Sahara and Sahel Studies (CIRSS), headed by Atrilo Gaudio. The debates which opened in the presence of Bernard Huet, secretary general of the International Institute of Anthropology included the following: Bhely-Quenum, Benin writer; Felix Tchicaya, Congolese writer; William Syad, Somali. writer; Sissa Le Bernard, Central African philosopher; Mrs Awa Thiam, Senegalese writer; and Kone, Guinean journalist, director of BLACK MAGAZINE: "What is the Purpose

of Black Intellectuals?" ]

[Text } Rene Pelletier: The topic of our round-table discussion this evening is: "What is the Purpose of African Intellectuals?" This notion of uselessness may seem surprising in a world in which the intellectual is conceived more as the architect of the concept, the speculator, rather than the actor of a story generally reserved to politicians alone. However, he may be given another meaning, that of service and servitude, and one may ask what is their purpose in his own country?

This question, it seems to me, applies quite specifically to the African intellectuals one of whose paradoxes is to undertake to promote a cultural revolution in favor of modernism using the intellectual legacy of their elders. The 20 years which preceded independence as well as the years which followed decolonization coincided with the development of a national awareness aided by the experience of a cultural alienation. Philosophers, political thinkers, and economists became the spinal column of this national intelligentsia which exercised a very big influence not only outside the continent but also on the African youth.

Today, however, this youth has reached full maturity. Some have profited from the goods of decolonization and, at the cost of substantial sacri- fices on the part of their countries, went abroad to train in universities which were either not available then or are still not to be found in


the African states. Such universities, need we recall this, are as yet to reap the benefits of their investments.

Yei, what do we see today? The best African brains are to be found everywhere other than in Africa where they would be the most productive. The reason that Africa is one of the areas in the Third World out of which the exodus of brain power is the lowest is precisely because there is no plethora of brains here. Where are, therefore, the African intelleciuals, and what is their use? In an Africa which is beginning its third decade of development but where illiteracy remains, where are the pioneers who would be willing to invest their lives in the masses and "collaborate with their muscles" as would say Frantz Fanon?

Is the mission of the intellectuai, like a mandarin, to exploit his educational capital or is it his political duty to give back to his people the p-oduct of his culture? Such are the important questions which seem to us worthy of posing.

Felix Tchicaya: Informed of the topic of this discussion, my first answer was, they are useless. Then I studied the few questions you had formulated and discussed them aggressively with some colleagues, even opposing some African intellectuals who are not present here. I would answer the question whether or not the African intellectual has a greater responsibility today compared with other intellectuals as follows: I believe that the fact that they find themselves in two historical situations, even if we are contemporaries, in two different sociological situations, changes the terms of the problem. They do not share the same responsibilities even though, globally speaking, they have the responsibilities of the intellectuals, which are to understand at least their own age and, perhaps, provide it with a certain number of answers. Yet, where the role of the African, it would appear, is different, or worsened is that he faces a total vacuum, the lack of means for the recovery of an ancient heritage which could be the base for the construction which is taking place under his own eyes.

R. Pelletier: What do you mean by recovering the heritage of the past?

F. Tchicaya: Listen, if I look at the questions you have asked us to think about, you say that Africa has paid for the education of its children. Therefore, you are referring to the present. A certain num- ber of people become trained, come to the country to take part in its development. However, this means forgetting that there is also a certain elite which has not been trained in European schools or in the schools of the colonization or postcolonization perioc and which has nothing anymore to say or has, perhaps, stashed away a capital which should be recovered for this construction. Therefore, let us consider this African intellectual. Who is he? He was educated, and you are saying that it was thanks to the efforts and sacrifices of the people of the nation that he obtained this education. However, who trained


him to make him truly an African intellectual? He was not trained by Africa. Africa paid but he was trained elsewhere. Let us recall thst in the 1960's in a number of African countries the number of cadres was merely symbolic. How many intellectuals were there in those countries, how many graduates, how many university trained people? One, two, three. . . It was said at that time that there could be no development. This is now 1979 and these same countries have increased and multiplied by the thousands, surely, the numver of such graduates. The question arises: Is development taking place? What I am trying to say is that this training of the African intellectual may perhaps not be what Africa needs so that the African may factually and totally participate in the future of his continent. This intellectual finds himself in a situation which wakes him a marginal bystander in the process of development of his country. What are his actual tools for action? You say that it is the pressures exerted by the governments on the communications media: This is correct. Radio, television, and even the press media are confiscated by the powers, by the powers which keep them jealously for themselves and which does not give access to any intellectual to express his views properly. Under such conditions no debate could take place.

R. Pelletier: In the period of colonization as well the information organs were controlled. . .

F. Tchicaya: I am merely making a statement, I am not criticizing. I do not wish to say that the period of colonization was nirvana and that today it is hell. I am merely pointing something out. I may be intro- ducing, perhaps, a pessimistic viewpoint and there will be other view- points which will be voiced and which, perhaps, will be more optimistic than mine. However, I have never been provided with a definition of what an African intellectual might be. What is his usefulness? That is the fundamental question. It is somewhat embarrassing to question the use of an African intellectual and not pose the question to the Senegalese intellectual, the Guinean intellectual, the Congolese intellectual, which might, perhaps, enable us to define more clearly the questions asked, unless one thinks that the Balkanization of Africa is an optical illusion, that it does not exist, and that it is not manifested through the facts.

Atti’ io Gaudio: But then the question could be asked of determining whether there are intellectuals in Africa ir. power, if they are all lined up. Do the intellectuals refuse to provide on the cultural level the necessary help which would legitimize them in the eyes of the masses?

William Syad: Tchicaya formulated the problem properly: The usefulness of the intellectuals cannot be defined: The concept is too broad. One should define the use of the Senegalese intellectuals, the Central African intellectuals, the Congolese intellectuals. I believe that

each country, each African region, has its characteristics. The different colonizations from which all of us have suffered have left


each one of us something. If I take as an example the Horn of Africa, which I know well, the problem cannot be compared to that of Western Africa, for example.

F. Tchicaya: One cannot judge the African intellectuals and say that those who are in power have taken a stand and those who are not have

not taken a stand. This means insulting those who are in Africa and who work there. Let us take as an example a government, any government, government X: Unquestionably, we may find a president who is an ex- corporal or ex-infantryman or an illiterate in the broa ‘est possible meaning of the term. His cabinet, however, would be crowded with technocrats, physicians, engineers, etc.

R. Pelletier: I was thinking move precisely of men of letters, those whose role it is to develop the dialogue. . .

F. Tchicaya: A biologist could also be a philosopher. .. .

A. Gaudio: Yes, but do you not think that the organic intellectual, in the Gramscian meaning of the term, has yielded to a type of parlor intellectualism: One could raise the question of the social identity of the role of the intellectual.

F. Tchicaya: Yes, this picture could be borne in mind. But, as I said, where are the structures which allow the intellectual to play the role he is expected to play? The problem is important.

William Syad: I believe, as a matter of fact, that we are coming to the heart of our discussion. Tchicaya speaks of structures while I would say that each government or state which gained its independence in the 1960's--now coming to the third decade--is now becoming aware of the need for a basic structure to avoid this brain drain. This is what Somalia is doing, for example. It has nationalized the language. Somali is being taught from the first grade to the university. The brain drain has been stopped. The intellectuals are no longer leaving, they are serving their country. That is what a number of African coun- tries are beginning to understand now, realizing that the intellectuals must work with the people and go to the people. That is precisely what is happening in East Africa.

M. Kone: The brain drain is a phenomenon which could be explained in terms of abstract rather than factual reasons. To say, like Syad, that the Somali government has adopted a policy to block the brein drain is alright. However, what policy has been adopted so that the intellectuals may not be tempted to leave? One does not leave one's country quite simply. If the Somali were leaving yesterday and no longer leaving today it would be proper for Mr Syad to describe the new policy adopted by the Somali authorities.


Sissa Le Bernard: Let me specify something. You are speaking of attempts to establish democracy in the western part of the continent.

I am not shocked by the mention of the western part of the continent but the aspiration toward democracy is inherent in any nation. On the other hand, I do not agree with Syad, particularly when he raises the question of finding out why we are not discussing Senegalese, Guinean, or Congolese intellectuals. I believe that when we speak of African intellectuals today we are speaking of intellectuals who come from countries which have been colonized, whether by French or British imperialism. Conversely, all such intellectuals live in the same environment whose problems are almost identical. Those are problems of domination and exploitation and, therefore, of submission. Such intellectuals are facing the same problems and, leaving, they try to react or to act according to the conditions of their countries and the historical specifics of their nations. It is true that the problems which arise in the different countries do not arise in the same manner. In the overall sense, however, they are the same problems which we face caused by the przsence of colonialism which is trying to promote on the political stage a group of individuals, let us say a caste, who have retained their possessions. As to the wsefulness of the African intellectual today, this is a very small part of the problem, for the African intellectual is one worker among others. He is someone who, thanks to the results of the work done by his people who agreed to make tremendous sacrifices to ensure his training, has the duty to go home to apply his knowledge acquired or conquered in the course of his training abroad in order to promote the national enhancement in the interest of the masses. However, another factual problem arises: Can the knowledge he has gained in the course of his training be freely applied in edifying the nation? That is the crux of the problem.

R. Pelletier: Therefore, there are two problems: Could he make use of his knowledge and is this knowledge useful to his country?

Kone: One could in fact ask oneself whether the knowledge he has acquired in the course of his training could be applied, as it is, in his country.

Bhely-Quenum: We are existing, indeed, within a context torn to pieces, and we should see clear in this situation. It is of capital importance for us to be able to say something. I read somewhere that whoever goes preaching in the temple, whoever goes preaching among the masses, will be crucified. However, the African intellectual does not belong to himself. Does it mean that the African intellectual rejects himself? No, he does not, but there are pressures, and such pressures may be so strong that the African intellectual, like Africa itself, does not belong to himself. It was a chief of state who said that "the master of Africa will be the master of the world." What does this mean? Is it that whoever will own African raw materials will be the master of

the world? To this I say: “Why should Africa not be her own mistress? Without the claim of becoming the master of the world, it should be the mistress of herself. The African intellectual is the image of Africa: tie docs not belong to himself. The African intellectuals may thus be led to note the failure of democracy in the continent:. We could say that we are here, we, intellectuals, to consider the facts, to formu- late a statemen’ and to define ourselves.

Im this society we have iearned a great deai of things, both at home and in Europe, and we can ask ourselves the question of the extent to which what we are learning abroad leads us to invest this knowledge in our own country and to use it, or else to convert what we learned abroad and make it useful to our country and change things that are

quite faulty and no longer correspond to the requirements of the current world.

Yet, we come across two corperations: The people who live abroad and who nce longer understand anything concerning their country or its pro- blems, and the others who, while also living abroad, frequently come home, establish contact with the masses, live with the people, under- stand their problems, and try to change them. There is a type of politics known as the worm in the apple. We come home like the country's children and are considered as intellectuals trained abroad who do not understand anything about the country. This is not true. The intellec- tual comes bringing his knowleage and establishes the facts. He takes part in che transformation.

R. Pelletier: There is the linguistic problem. How many intellectuals or writers speak or write in the vernacular?

Bhel y -Quenum: The problem does exist but, today, there is an ever

growing number of Africans who can express themselves in the language of their country, in Swahili, or in another language. But let me go

back to the question already raised: We spoke of the mass media which

are the machineries of the state. The intellectuals have no access to

such media. In his own country the media must give the intellectual

the possibility to invest, to be aware of what goes on. How could the

intellectuals, or those described as intellectuals, achieve to be

recognized by the state? They hold a marginal position. Except for

one or two, there are rare African countries to acknowledge them,

A. Gaudio: Do you acknowledge that there are countries with a diversi- fied press, such as Zaire, for example, where intellectuals, nevertheless, do not participate. What is the reason for this? Is it caused by the isolationism of the intellectuals or by censorship’

F. Tchicaya: 1 would like to clarify this. Previously I said chat Africa has paid for the training of its intellect